Black Lives Matter and Western Expansion BLM in the FSU Democracy Promotion Democratic Party authoritarianism EU Eurasia Eurasian politics European Union Federalism NATO NATO expansion Russia

Western Soft Power: Black Lives Matter in the Former Soviet Union

by Gordon M. Hahn

The expansion of the EU and NATO is facilitating the expansion of one set of Western values and point of view to the east; an east for which many of the issues raised by the predominant American component of Western ideology are irrelevant to locals. To be clear, the U.S., EU, and NATO are expanding the liberal-leftist values and policies of, first of all, the Democrat Party (DP) and then to a lesser extent European leftists and liberal parties: radical environmentalism of the Great Thunberg variety, extremist identitarian racial and gender reverse discrimination, including transgenderism and transvestitism, socialist redistribution of wealth by force from the state, the use of the state apparatus to support the liberal-left porition of the political spectrum and agenda, and the like. All these are leading to a decay in Western republican governance and the rise of a new authoritarianism in the West. This authoritarianism’s hypocrisy is powerful and is expressed eloquently by its countries’ claims to be waging a twilight struggle against authoritarianism in the east, represented by identitarian bogey man, Russian President Vladimir Putin, and the rising set of China, which cannot easily by pigeonholed as ‘white supremacist’, though someone is surely working on a way to finagle that convolution for propaganda’s sake. The growing deficit of republicanism, rule of law, and freedom in the West will make two authoritarian global ‘parties,’ increasing the likelihood of war between the great powers. Thus, the new cold war is becoming a mirror image of the ‘A Team v. B Team’ politics of the U.S., in which each side supports its team, its side, its party in our two-party system, no matter where the truth lies. In the process, Western, in particular American ‘soft power’ is spreading ideas that many conservative Americans themselves reject and disdain but nevertheless are financing through their tax dollars. One of those ideas is ‘Black Lives Matter.’ I have included an Appendix at the end of this article that demonstrates the reverse racism of Black Lives Matter, its critical race theory and ideology, the actual picture of policing, black and white crime, and police-black shootings in America.

An example of Western liberal-left propaganda soft power, as opposed to Western conservate-right propaganda soft power (constitutional republicanism, free markets, freedom, and civil, political, and human rights), is Western ‘international’ education in countries along Russia’s border. I have not yet researched and probably will not the extent to which DP propaganda is being disseminated across the east, in particular the former communist states and Soviet republics that have become EU and NATO members. However, I have direct experience in one of the former Soviet republics with one international, to which one of my two daughters attends daily whether physically or virtually, depending on the state of the ‘war against COVID.’ I present my family’s experience here.

Keep in mind that there are no African or other racial minorities in this particular country, no blacks, no Hispanics, no Asians. The only minority is ethnic and linguistic, and it is Russian. No, there is no EU or NATO plan to counter Russophobia here. The school seems preoccupied with the problems of the homeland of most of its teachers, England.

In a poetry class a few weeks ago, the class topic became ‘Black Lives Matter’ (BLM). The children are 10-11 years of age and consist of no Americans, Brits, Australians; one parent of one child is Canadian. Two materials were presented.

The ‘poetry’ material is an interview with a British poet, who praises BLM, with no other view presented for balance but

only to be refuted. In this contextless and one-sided way, without an iota of evidence or comparison, the children are given to learn and accept the point of view that ‘some people,’ implicitly whites, think blacks are less than human. Ignored, of course, is the mass of evidence that there are the blacks who consider whites to be less than human (see the ‘academic’ work “On Whiteness” in the Appendix below).

The esteemed poet says that Trayvon Martin was “killed” and but “this person was found not guilty.” Naturally, anyone, not least of all children, would find it hard to believe that the two events – someone being killed and the killer being ‘not guilty’ seemingly in the most general sense (were the children told there was a trial?) – to be quite shocking and wrong. But, of course, this is not all that happened. Court testimony and forensic evidence led a jury to acquit the Hispanic George Zimmerman of murder on the grounds that he engaged in self-defense when he shot Martin. Before their apparent confrontation, Martin was talking on the phone and referring to Zimmerman, who was following him, with the derogatory term for white people (cracker). Moreover, although we do not who attacked whom first, we do know from forensics experts’s and most of the eyewitness testimony that Martin was .itting on top of Zimmerman and bashing his head on a concrete sidewalk, causing gashes all over Zimmerman’s head. This is what prompted Zimmerman to shoot Martin in self-defense (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trial_of_George_Zimmerman). The omission, deletion, and now censorship of such exculpatory and other relevant facts by our ‘poet’ and lesson materials is a specialty of BLM, the DP, and their liberal. leftist, and extremist allies in the U.S., Europe and, as I will show in a forthcoming piece, elsewhere farther east.

The cartoon on the last page of the interview’s text is designed to counter the critique of BLM as a slogan; a critique that argues that slogan BLM implies that all lives do not matter, only black lives do. The cartoon shows one figure

attempting to convince another that this is not true by setting up an analogy. Imagine a series of houses. One is on fire; others are not. One needs repairs. Shouldn’t one focus on the house that is on fire, rather than making repairs to another, the one figure asks the other? The point is that blacks are still embattled victims in systemically and institutionally racist America.

Of course, the idea that the term BLM does not downgrade the value of other lives is open to dispute and refutable, but rather than giving the children two or three points of view, they are given when, the discussion of which is used to discredit alternative points of view, putting the latter in a position of supporting racism and the violation of blacks’ rights. This is not the teaching of critical thinking but engaging in propaganda. The most obvious counterargument is BLM’s support for racism in the form of critical race theory (see Appendix). Moreover, the BLM slogan itself involves a common propaganda and brainwashing technique using self-inference to deliver and reinforce an idea. The idea the propagandist seeks to insert in his/her target’s mind — what you want others to believe – is introduced by way of inference. One creates a phrase from which an inference is natural, almost reflexive to make, and that inference is the idea you want to insert into the reader’s head. Thus, black lives matter leads to the inference that other lives do not matter. How, imagine one is with a friend and is looking at two houses and says that the house on the left is beautiful. This statement leads to the almost inevitable inference that the person who made the comment does not think the house on the right is beautiful. This explains why many who are not black find the slogan discriminatory. They make the logical inference which is that non-black lives do not matter. The danger exists also that blacks will make the inference, facilitating black violence against non-blacks.

Our school’s principal, who taught one of two classes to which this material was presented, responded to my and my wife’s complaints that this is taught “across the world” and the class discussion led to the conclusion that anger is bad. The material suggested something much different, and we are forced to take her word about the content of the class discussion. One wonders why, if the goal was to teach kindness and non-violence against anger and violence, the school and those the world over chose as a model a highly politicized subject from the point of a group that led hundrds of violent demonstrations and riots across America in summer 2020 and in Washington DC upon the inauguration of Donald Trump as U.S. president in January 2017. If one wants to teach non-violence one can teach the life of Dietrich Bonhoeffer, Mahatma Gandhi, and Martin Luther King.

But this minority ultranationalism and the method of justifying and expanding it by way of propaganda to innocent schoolchildren is not the only thing we Westerners’ tax dollars are funding . Twice now the school has invited a NATO member-country’s military officer to school to gve talks to children only 7-8 years old. He handed momentos with varius NATO symbols on them to the children. The following is one of them:

To some all this might seem like BLM propaganda being disseminated at the barrel of a gun. Perhaps it is.

A century ago, the West in the person of the German government helped Lenin to return to Russia and financed revolutionary activity that led to February 1917 and Lenin’s post-February activity, as he planned the October coup. The result was World War, a Cold War, and a hundred million killed under communist rule in the USSR and the other countries Marxism-Leninism infected. I don’t expect BLM to repeat Bolshevism’s ‘successes’ or Ms. Cullors to be sitting in the Kremlin any time soon. To be sure, there might be some poetic justice in such a fantastical outcome, especially if the West was forced to conduct another century of containment and other measures to compensate for its mistakes.

We can expect that, just as in the U.S, the abuse of soft power with the introduction of such ‘poetry lessons’ and ‘education’, will cause unnecessary division in the ‘target countries’, as the democracy-promotion refers to them. But ultimately it will continue to divide the world, providing eastern authoritarian regimes and peoples all the reason in the world to avoid what the Westerners calls ‘democracy’ but was always republicanism until it became the new, new authoritarianism. 

_______________________________

APPENDIX

BLM SLOGAN? ‘HANDS UP, DON’T SHOOT’ — BLM’s FALSIFICATION OF FACTS REGARDING SHOOTINGS OF BLACKS BY POLICE

            With few exception, the police shootings BLM has protested have been misrepresented by BLM as the murder of unarmed, passive young African-Americans. The reality is that in almost all cases, the young African-Americans were armed and were attempting or already had attempted to attack and kill police. For example, “(a) majority of black Americans believe that St Louis area teenager Brown was essentially murdered by Ferguson (Missouri) police officer Darren Wilson, in a scenario close to that originally described to the media by ‘street witnesses’. That is, a black boy was shot in cold blood as he held up his open hands and begged for his life. However, while this scenario inspired the popular t-shirt and political slogan ‘Hands up, don’t shoot’, it bears little resemblance to reality.

            “Wilson has been cleared by two separate comprehensive investigations of the Brown shooting (as well as his original grand jury) – one conducted in 2015 by the Obama administration Department of Justice; and the second in 2020 by a left-leaning Missouri prosecutor who campaigned specifically on a promise to revisit the facts of Brown’s case. The reason for both outcomes was the overwhelming thrust of the facts: Brown’s DNA was found on the slide and trigger guard of Wilson’s gun, as well as on the lawman’s shirt and pants, inside his car, and on the left interior door handle of the vehicle. ABC News, in a major 2014 piece, drew the obvious conclusion from these data: ‘Brown punched the officer… and reached [into his vehicle] and struggled over Wilson’s gun.’ At no point did the 6ft 5in tall Brown have his hands up, during what became a physical struggle between two big men, except perhaps to strike Wilson.

            “With a very few exceptions (even to some extent George Floyd’s, the narratives surrounding most recent cases made famous by Black Lives Matter similarly collapse.” — See https://www.spiked-online.com/2020/11/06/michael-brown-the-founding-myth-of-black-lives-matter/

WHO IS BLM? SELF-AVOWED “TRAINED MARXISTS”! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1noLh25FbKI&ab_channel=KatH

PREACHING U.S. IS “SYSTEMICALLY, INSTITUTIONALLY RACIST,” BLM FOUNDER AND LEADER PATRICE CULLORS — A BLACK WOMAN — HAS 4 HOMES = $3.2 million

BLM’S ATKINS: “I don’t care if someone decides to loot a Gucci or a Macy’s or a Nike store, because that makes sure that person eats,” Atkins said. “That makes sure that person has clothes. That is reparations.” Black Lives Matter New York leader Hawk Newsome downplayed rioting in an April interview with Fox News. “I think that it is a tool of white supremacy to say if you want freedom, then you get it by protesting peacefully,” he said. https://dailycaller.com/2020/09/17/black-lives-matter-riots-study-data-princeton/

BLM-connected or -organized riots:[1]

  • 91 percent of the riots between May 26 and Sept. 12, 2020 were linked to the Black Lives Matter movement, according to the US Crisis Monitor, a joint project of the Armed Conflict Location & Event Data Project and the Bridging Divides Initiative at Princeton University.
  • Number: 93 % peaceful. Of 7% violent, nearly 570 violent demonstrations/riots in nearly 220 locations across the country.[2]
  • Damage: The summer 2020 riots resulted in some 15 times more injured police officers, 30 times as many arrests, and estimated damages in dollar terms up to 1,300 times more costly than those of the Capitol riot.[3] Protests and riots following the 2020 killing of Floyd resulted in at least 18 deaths, $350 million worth of property damage in the Minneapolis area and nearly $2 billion nationwide.[4]

U. S. POPULATION 2019:[5] White = 76.3%   —   Black = 13.4   —   Hispanic = 18.5

BLACKS ARE OVER-REPRESENTED IN CRIMINAL ACTIVITY AS COMPARED TO THEIR WEIGHT IN THE U.S. POPULATION: THE MORE CRIME YOU ENGAGE IN ARMED, THE MORE LIKELY YOU WILL BE SHOT BY POLICE:

PERCENT OF ARRESTS BY ETHNICITY FOR VARIOUS CRIMES IN U.S.:[6]

BLACKS = 13% OF THE U.S. POPULATION BUT: In all 30 categories of crime the percentage of crimes committed by blacks is higher than  13%.

                                    % OF BLACKS FROM

CRIME                       TOTAL ARRESTS                   

Total                                        26.6     near 2x % in pop

Murder/intent homicide          51.3     >2x % in pop

Rape                                        26.8           “

Robbery                                  50.3           “

Weapons carrying                   41.9           “

Aggravated assault                 32.7           “

Burglary                                  27.3           “

Larceny theft                           29.0           “

Auto Theft                              24.4     near 2x

Arson                                      24.0     near 2x

https://ucr.fbi.gov/crime-in-the-u.s/2019/crime-in-the-u.s.-2019/topic-pages/tables/table-43

AFRICAN-AMERICANS KILL POLICE AT A RATE DISPROPORTIONATELY HIGH TO THEIR REPRESENTATION IN THE U.S. POPULATION. In 2019, 49 alleged offenders were identified in connection with the 48 law enforcement officers feloniously killed. Of those offenders, the following characteristics are known:

  • 28 of the alleged perpetrators were White, 15 were Black/African American, and 1 was Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander. Race was not reported for 5 of the alleged offenders. (See Table 42.)
  • 12 of the alleged perpetrators were under judicial supervision at the time of the incidents. (See Table 45.)
  • 36 of the alleged perpetrators had prior criminal arrests. (See Table 46.) [7]

https://ucr.fbi.gov/leoka/2019/topic-pages/officers-feloniously-killed

THE ABOVE TWO POINTS SHOWING FAR GREATER CRIMINALITY AMONG BLACKS THAN WHITES ABOVE EXPLAIN WHY WE HAVE DISPOROPORTION BETWEEN THE BLACK/WHITE COHORT SIZES IN THE U.S. POPULATION AND NUMBER OF WHITES AND BLACKS SHOT TO DEATH BY POLICE: About HALF as many blacks as whites shot 2017-2021.[8]

FATAL POLICE SHOOTINGS BY RACE: BLACK V. WHITE

Year                Black/White

2017                233/457

2018                209/399

2019                235/370

2020                242/457

2021                111/194

An academic study by a black Harvard University professor who introduces contextual factors into his analysis shows there is no disproportionate use of deadly force by police against Afro-Americans in the U. S.[9]

IF WHITES ARE MORE RACIST THAN BLACKS WHY IS BLACK VIOLENCE AGAINST WHITES MORE PREVALENT THAN WHITE VIOLENCE AGAINST BLACKS PROPORTIONATE TO POPULATION SIZE?

INTERRACIAL & INTRARACIAL VIOLENCE – HOMICIDE IN U.S., 2018.[10]

VICTIM’S                           WHITE                    BLACK

RACE          TOTAL     PERPETRATOR     PERPETRATOR

————————————————————————————————-

White              3,315               2,677                           514

Black              2,925                  234                        2,600

————————————————————————————————-

From 1980 through 2008, 84 percent of white victims were killed by whites and 93 percent of black victims were killed by blacks.[11]

IF WHITES ARE MORE RACIST THAN BLACKS, WHYIS THE NUMBER OF BLACK-COMMITTED HATE CRIMES DISPROPORTIONATELY HIGH RELATIVE TO POPULATION SIZE.[12] In 2019, race was reported for 6,406 known hate crime offenders. Of these offenders:

  • 52.5 percent were White. COMPARED TO 76% OF U.S. POPULATION
  • 23.9 percent were Black or African American. V 13% OF U.S. POPULATION

https://ucr.fbi.gov/hate-crime/2019/topic-pages/offenders

_________________________________________________________________________________________________________

BLACK ANTI-WHITE RACISM

Donald Moss, “On Having Whiteness,” Journal of the American Psychoanalytical Association, Vol. 69, No. 2, 2021, pp. 355-371.ARTICLE ABSTRACT[13]:

Whiteness is a condition one first acquires and then one has—a malignant, parasitic-like condition to which “white” people have a particular susceptibility. The condition is foundational, generating characteristic ways of being in one’s body, in one’s mind, and in one’s world. Parasitic Whiteness renders its hosts’ appetites voracious, insatiable, and perverse. These deformed appetites particularly target nonwhite peoples. Once established, these appetites are nearly impossible to eliminate. Effective treatment consists of a combination of psychic and social-historical interventions. Such interventions can reasonably aim only to reshape Whiteness’s infiltrated appetites—to reduce their intensity, redistribute their aims, and occasionally turn those aims toward the work of reparation. When remembered and represented, the ravages wreaked by the chronic condition can function either as warning (“never again”) or as temptation (“great again”). Memorialization alone, therefore, is no guarantee against regression. There is not yet a permanent cure” (See https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/00030651211008507?journalCode=apaa&). See similar views by a New York psychiatrist invited to give a lecture at The Yale University School of Medicine. In her lecture Aruna Khilanani, who has a private practice in New York, discussed her fantasies of shooting white people, as reported by The New York Times.[14]

The new critical race theory and Black liberation theology, so popular among African-Americans, have established race as a biological criteria for divining the line between good and evil. Critical race theory combines Marxist theories of oppressor versus oppressed through the lens of race, not just class antagonism. In the era of postmodernism, these radical ideologies have been embraced by many African-American intellectuals and political leaders. The DP leadership, moreover, openly supports such ideologies. Thus, incoming president Joe Biden’s appointee to head the Justice Department’s Civil Rights Division, Kristen Clark, has endorsed in very specific terms black suprematism in its most primordial, biological form. As a student at Harvard University she wrote a letter to the Harvard Crimson arguing that “(m)elanin endows Blacks with greater mental, physical and spiritual abilities” as compared to whites.[15] She also wrote:

“Please use the following theories and observations to assist you in your search for truth regarding the genetic differences between Blacks and whites.

“One: Dr Richard King reveals that the core of the human brain is the ‘locus coeruleus,’ which is a structure that is Black, because it contains large amounts of neuro-melanin, which is essential for its operation.

“Two: Black infants sit, crawl and walk sooner than whites.

“Three: Carol Barnes notes that human mental processes are controlled by melanin — that same chemical which gives Blacks their superior physical and mental abilities.

“Four: Some scientists have revealed that most whites are unable to produce melanin because their pineal glands are often calcified or non-functioning. Pineal calcification rates with Africans are five to 15 percent, Asians 15 to 25 percent and Europeans 60 to 80 percent. This is the chemical basis for the cultural differences between blacks and whites.

Five: Melanin endows Blacks with greater mental, physical and spiritual abilities — something which cannot be measured based on Eurocentric standards.”[16] 

Another such racist thinker is Biden’s nominee to the post of State Department Under Secretary for Arms Conrol and International Security Affairs, Ambassador Bonnie Jenkins. She is co-founder of a race theory institute, the Women of Color for Peace, Security, and Conflict Resolution (WCPSCR) and former head of the arms control division at State under Obama. The WCPSCR has issued a statement blaming the January 6th riot at the Capitol citing its origins not in the provocative acts of the DP over the last four years, including speeches inciting violence against Trump supporters and/or conservatives, not on widespread reporting and evidence of voter fraud, not even on Trump’s speech, but on “white supremacy”: “We must acknowledge this attack’s gravity and recognize its origin in white supremacy and a lack of accountability.”[17]

In a recent Washington Post editorial on “multiracial whiteness,” a New York University ‘professor’ named Cristina Beltran leveled a pseudo-academic attack on all non-whites who support former President Donald Trump, Republicans, or conservatives and their causes. Such traitorous non-whites have decided to become white or bathe in whiteness. They do so on “the promise” from whites that minorities, like whites, “can lay claim to the politics of aggression, exclusion and domination.” They manifest the whiteness they treacherously appropriate, she scribbled, by the “persecution and dehumanization of others.”[18]

Rutgers University black female ‘professor’ called for “taking these motherfuckers (white people) out, prasing low birth rates among whites in the U. S.[19]

African-American, female U.S. House of Representatives Rep. Cori Bush recently used racism for political ends as the entire DP now often does: “Joe Manchin’s opposition to the Build Back Better Act is anti-Black, anti-child, anti-woman, and anti-immigrant. When we talk about transformative change, we are talking about a bill that will benefit Black, brown and Indigenous communities. Those same communities are overwhelmingly excluded from the bipartisan infrastructure bill. We cannot leave anyone behind.[20]


[1] See https://acleddata.com/acleddatanew/wp-content/uploads/2020/09/ACLED_USDataReview_Sum2020_SeptWebPDF.pdf.

[2] See also http://www.washingtonexaminer.com/news/conservatives-point-out-that-princeton-study-on-protests-reveals-violence-was-found-at-hundreds-of-demonstrations.

[3] https://www.realclearinvestigations.com/articles/2021/09/09/realclearinvestigations_jan_6-blm_comparison_database_791370.html

[4] See http://www.foxnews.com/media/ny-times-ignores-18-deaths-2-billion-damage-gop-bills.

[5] See https://www.census.gov/quickfacts/fact/table/US/PST045219.

[6] See https://ucr.fbi.gov/crime-in-the-u.s/2019/crime-in-the-u.s.-2019/topic-pages/tables/table-43.

[7] See https://ucr.fbi.gov/leoka/2019/topic-pages/officers-feloniously-killed.

[8] See https://www.statista.com/statistics/585152/people-shot-to-death-by-us-police-by-race/.

[9] See https://www.nber.org/system/files/working_papers/w22399/w22399.pdf.

[10] See https://ucr.fbi.gov/crime-in-the-u.s/2018/crime-in-the-u.s.-2018/tables/expanded-homicide-data-table-6.xls.

[11] See https://www.politifact.com/article/2015/may/21/updated-look-statistics-black-black-murders/.

[12] See https://ucr.fbi.gov/hate-crime/2019/topic-pages/offenders and https://ucr.fbi.gov/hate-crime/2019/tables/table-9.xls.

[13] See https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/00030651211008507?journalCode=apaa&.

[14] See http://www.nytimes.com/2021/06/06/nyregion/yale-psychiatrist-aruna-khilanani.html?fbclid=IwAR2Zarxwa3K8owSFskvnaQJ4g-4oH0o2RLslr7n7vWyKCBRy7yMcTwpSWx4.

[15] See http://www.foxnews.com/opinion/tucker-carlson-kristen-clarke-doj-civil-rights-division.

[16] See http://www.foxnews.com/opinion/tucker-carlson-kristen-clarke-doj-civil-rights-division.

[17] See https://issuu.com/wcapsnet/docs/final_statement_on_the_violent_attacks_at_capitol_.

[18] See http://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/2021/01/15/understand-trumps-support-we-must-think-terms-multiracial-whiteness/?fbclid=IwAR0HlMvJbqufrYHNX6mTl2gHMd91SrVJtrhye9YBl_XzLw5EH_BfesZ4uLs.

[19] See https://www.breitbart.com/tech/2021/10/29/we-got-to-take-these-motherfckers-out-rutgers-u-prof-praises-low-white-birth-rates/?fbclid=IwAR3PLuBlBn-xyj4zNHTOwFbuv-Kas9dVuI-H6vKRyPeb2AUvf7xn__QvK5A.

[20] See https://twitter.com/RepCori/status/1455310739988783106 and http://www.theblaze.com/news/anti-black-anti-child-anti-woman-and-anti-immigrant-cori-bush-decries-joe-manchin-s-opposition-to-the-build-back-better-act.

JUST PUBLISHED

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About the Author – Gordon M. Hahn, Ph.D., is an Expert Analyst at Corr Analytics, http://www.canalyt.com and a Senior Researcher at the Center for Terrorism and Intelligence Studies (CETIS), Akribis Group, www.cetisresearch.org. Dr. Hahn is the author of The Russian Dilemma: Security, Vigilance, and Relations with the West from Ivan III to Putin (McFarland, forthcoming in 2021), Ukraine Over the Edge: Russia, the West, and the “New Cold War” (McFarland, 2018), The Caucasus Emirate Mujahedin: Global Jihadism in Russia’s North Caucasus and Beyond (McFarland, 2014), Russia’s Islamic Threat (Yale University Press, 2007), and Russia’s Revolution From Above: Reform, Transition and Revolution in the Fall of the Soviet Communist Regime, 1985-2000 (Transaction, 2002). He also has published numerous think tank reports, academic articles, analyses, and commentaries in both English and Russian language media.

Dr. Hahn also has taught at Boston, American, Stanford, San Jose State, and San Francisco State Universities and as a Fulbright Scholar at Saint Petersburg State University, Russia and has been a senior associate and visiting fellow at the Center for Strategic and International Studies, the Kennan Institute in Washington DC, and the Hoover Institution.

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